Tag Archive: 2018

Impact of travel time constraints on taste heterogeneity and non-linearity in simple time-cost trade-offs.

Discrete choice models are a key technique for estimating the value of travel time (VTT). Often, stated choice data are used in which respondents are presented with trade-offs between travel time and travel cost and possibly additional attributes. There is a clear possibility that some respondents experience time constraints, leaving some of the presented options unfeasible. A model not incorporating information on these constraints would explain choices for faster and more expensive options as an indication that those respondents have a higher VTT when in reality they may be forced to select the more expensive option as a result of their personal constraints. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that this can have major impacts on findings in terms of heterogeneity in VTT measures. This paper examines via simulation the bias in VTT estimates and especially preference heterogeneity when such constraints are (not) accounted for. Empirical evidence is provided that preference heterogeneity is confounded with the travel budget impact on the availabilities of alternatives, and it is shown that there is a risk of producing biased estimates for appraisal VTT if studies do not explicitly model choice set formation. The inclusion of an opt-out alternative could be an effective measure to reduce the bias. This paper also explores the potential use of non-linear functional forms to capture the time budget impacts.

Tjiong, J., Hess, S., Dekker, T. & Ojeda-Cabral, M. (2018), Impact of travel time constraints on taste heterogeneity and non-linearity in simple time-cost trade-offs, Transportation Research Record, 2672(49) 135–145.

Identification and appraisal of outcome measures used to evaluate hypodontia care: A systematic review.

Introduction
Identification and appraisal of the outcome measures that have been used to evaluate hypodontia treatment and deliver services are essential for improving care. A lack of alignment between outcomes and patient values can limit the scope for patient-centered care. Our objectives were to identify and appraise the outcomes selected to evaluate hypodontia care.

Methods
Data sources included 10 electronic databases and grey literature, searched using terms for hypodontia and its treatment methods. Study eligibility included mixed study designs to ensure comprehensive identification of outcomes, excluding case reports and case series with fewer than 10 participants and nonsystematic reviews. Participants and interventions involved people with hypodontia receiving any dental treatment to manage their hypodontia. Simulated treatment, purely laboratory-based interventions, and future treatments still in development were excluded. Research outcomes were identified and synthesised into 4 categories: clinical indicators, and patient-reported, clinician-reported, and lay-reported outcomes. No synthesis of efficacy data was planned, and consequently no methodologic quality appraisal of the studies was undertaken.

Results
The search identified 497 abstracts, from which 106 eligible articles were retrieved in full. Fifty-six studies and 8 quality-improvement reports were included. Clinical indicators were reported in 49 studies (88%) including appearance, function, dental health, treatment longevity, treatment success and service delivery. Patient-reported outcomes were given in 22 studies (39%) including oral health-related quality of life, appearance, function, symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction, and patient experience. Clinician-reported outcomes were limited to appearance. Variability was seen in the tools used for measuring outcomes.

Conclusions
There is a lack of rationale and consistency in the selection of outcome measures used to evaluate hypodontia care. Outcomes are largely clinician and researcher-driven with little evidence of their relevance to patients. There was a paucity of outcomes measuring access to care, quality of care, and cost. Evidence from hypodontia research is clinician-focused and likely to have limited value to support patients during decision making. Attempts to synthesise the evidence base for translation into practice will be challenging. There is a need for a core outcomes set with a patient-centric approach to drive improvements in health services.

Barber, S., Bekker, H. L., Meads, D., Pavitt, S., & Khambay, B. (2018). Identification and appraisal of outcome measures used to evaluate hypodontia care: A systematic review. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 153(2), 184-194.

We want it all: experiences from a survey seeking to capture social network structures, lifetime events and short-term travel and activity planning.

Recent work in transport research has increasingly tried to broaden out beyond traditional areas such as mode choice or car ownership and has tried to position travel decisions within the broader life context. However, while important progress has been made in terms of how to capture these additional dimensions, both in terms of detailed tracking of movements and in-depth data collection of long term decisions or social network influences, surveys have tended to look at only a handful (or often one) of these issues in isolation, especially at the data collection end. Making these links is the key aim of the data collection described in this paper. We conducted a comprehensive survey capturing respondents’ travel, energy and residential choices, their social environment, life history and short-term travel patterns. The survey is composed of a detailed background questionnaire, a life-course calendar and a name generator and name interpreter. Participants were also required to use a smartphone tracking app for 2-weeks. We believe that this is an unprecedented effort that joins complexity of the survey design, amount of information collected and sample size. The present paper gives a detailed overview of the different survey components and provides initial insights into the resulting data. We share lessons that we have learned and explain how our decisions in terms of specification were shaped by experiences from other data collections.

Calastri, C., Crastes dit Sourd, R. & Hess, S. (2018), We want it all: experiences from a survey seeking to capture social network structures, lifetime events and short-term travel and activity planning. Transportation, forthcoming.